Viðauki I: Nafnaþulur

A Ship

Now I will expound on heiti for ships:

ark, oar-clutch,
ash, Sessrúmnir (roomy-seated),16
racing warship, cutter, ship
and Skíðblaðnir,17
nave, Naglfari,18
rowboat, smack.

16 – Askr is also the name of the first man (Gylfaginning 9), and Sessrúmnir of Freyja’s hall (Gylfaginning 24).

17 – Freyr’s ship.

18 – The ship that brings the Sons of Múspell at Ragnarök.

Freighter, merchant ship,
bow-cold and reindeer,
ridgeback, thole-strap-fixed
cruiser, boat and pinnace,
brig, Hringhorni (ringhorn), 19
craft, keel, longship,
Leifnir,20 galley.

19 – Baldr’s ship.

20 – A sea-king’s name – see verse 4.

Ring, Gnóð, Freki (greedy),
fast, Móðrói (mind-stillness),
thole-strapped, beaked
and deep-beater,
owl, lighter
and ash-wittol,
skiff, long-boat,
cat-boat, conveyance and canoe. 21

21 – Also means a leather sheath, so presumably a skin canoe.

Knarr, cog, knuckleboat,
coble, dug-out,
dragonship, Elliði (high-poop),
warship and scow,
fir, steed, galiot,
ferry, punt,
swiftflyer, flyer and delight,
frequent-traveler and host-carrier.
Sail, planks, mast,
hold-fast, helm,
clenching, seaming,
clinching and sheet-rope,
stay, stem, steerage ropes,
studdle and buntline,
pennant and black-strakes,
bench, stern and cable.
Bow-rails, shrouds,
reefing-rope and sheets,
spikes, mast-tree,
seam, poop-supports,
leek, mast-head,
line, ears,
vane, vane’s tail
and plug.
Mast-knob, halyard-hole
and tiller,
hull, bow, fifth plank
and hawse-stem,
buntlines, hawse, pulleys
and stays,
tholes, heel, hammer,
help-rope and leech-line.
Yard, sailyard ring, reef,
rib and thole-straps,
windlass, poop,
wand, rowlocks,
winch, tacking-boom,
bulwark, prow and poop brands,
transoms, bow-line,
Prow, knee, boarding,
belt and bows,
keel-board, mast-wedge
and garboard,
bollards, carling,
clews and thwarts,
rigging, gunwhales,
cleats and deck-planks.
Guys, halyards,
siphon, oars,
sail-braces, clinch-plates,
bridge and pins,
sand-strake, keel-heel
and anchor,
anchor-buoy, bailer
and crow's nest.

The Earth

Earth, landscape, glebe,
marl and Hlöðyn,
humus, Sif, Fjörgyn,
ground, fundament and orb,
field, garden and Fife,
homeplace, country and coast,
land, soil, march,
locale and marsh.
Holt, ridge and fell,
mountainside and hill,
knoll, heath and combe,
hillock and slope,
crust, dale and wold,
vale and peninsula,
mold, underturf, hog's-back,
moor, hollow and sand.
Now I shall tell
the terms for oxen:
Árvak (early-waking), bellower
and Jörmunrekr,
neat, Freyr, Reginn,
smith, island-driller,
red and driven
and dark-sided,
fighter, gorer,
Vingnir, steerer.
Himinhrjóðr (heaven-reaver), cattle
and hard-farer,
Hæfir (hooved), stout one,
roarer, stot,
beeve, short-horn and color,
Hliðr (storm),22 draft-ox,
Arfr (inheritance), Jörmuni23
and mighty smith.

22 – Hliðr also occurs in verse 96 for a hart.

23 – usually referenced as Jörmunr; also a name of Óðinn.

Spark, Apli (dapple),
riches, young bullock, old bull
and Arfuni (heir),
bull, stormer, yeller,
noise and membered,
stud-bull, steer,
taurus, mud-given.

A Cow

A cow is called heifer,
she-calf and coquette24
and Auðhumbla,
she is the first of cows.

24 – skirja means “cow” but also “romping lass”; frenja in compounds means “hoyden”; clearly a different way of looking at cows from what we are used to.

A Ram

Ram, exceeding-horned one,
Gumarr,25 glowing-horn
and payment-wretch,
teg, white-horn,
simple one, horn-wretch
and Heimdali,
bleater, middling,
he-sheep,27 marten28 and wether.

25 – Uncertain meaning – gumar = men.

26 – Also a name of Heimdallr; see also Heimdali below.

27 – blær also means “air” or “breeze” and appears among the terms for a sword.

28 – Mörðr is generally held to be put here in error, since Iceland does not have martens.

A Goat

A goat is called Grímnir29
and Geirölnir,
Tanngnjóstr,30 chopper
and Tanngrisnir,
billygoat and he-goat,
buck, Grímr31 [is] mentioned.
It's also called Heiðrún,
nanny-goat and kidling,
and kid are the same.

29 – “Hooded” or “Shadowed” – a name of Óðinn.

30 – Tanngnjóstr and Tanngrisnir (Toothgnasher and Toothgrinder) are Thor’s goats.

31 – “Cowled”- also a name of Óðinn.

A Bear

Bear, bruin, mighty one,
she-bear, elk-opponent
blue-molar, icewolf
and broad-farer,
haltered, teddy,32
growler, leopard,33
rough, greedy, robber,
Jórekr, Mösni,
forest-traveler, cub,
snarler, Vetrliði (winter-survivor),
greedy-tooth, noisy-ass,34
hooded one, shriveled-gut.

32 – Bossi looks to be a diminutive, so I have used the modern one.

33 – Hlébarðr “used indiscriminately of a bear, wolf, etc.” Cleasby-Vigfusson. See also verses 57, 98.

34 – Going by the two parts of the word in Cleasby-Vigfusson, this should be noisy-twat. Jálfaðr, father of din, i.e. battle, is a name of Óðinn.

A Hart

Hart, Dyraþrór,
Hliðr (storm), Eikþyrnir,
Duneyrr, Dáinn,
Dvalarr, moor-treader.

A Hog

Hog, slaughter-shiner,
suckling and Hrímnir,
swine-tarr, boar,
Sæhrímnir, barrow-hog,
pig,35 slaughter-bear,
ridge, dirt-treader,
thriver, warrior, piggy,
barrow, Vaningi.36

35 – Taking rái as ráði.

36 – A name of Freyr – Vaning, Vanir-child.

A Wolf

Varg, wolf, Geri,
watcher, grey-beast,
Hati,37 Hróðvitnir
and heathdweller,
Freki and forest-dweller,
Fenrir, leopard,38
Goth,39 worthy, noisemaker,
howler, fighter,
dusky and dreadful
and swarthy-cheeked.

37 – The wolf that runs before the sun; the name means Shunner.

38 – hlébarðr; see also verses 57 and 95.

39 – Goti is listed in the Lexicon Poeticum as a term for a horse.

And [she] is called thus:
she-wolf, she-varg,
barker and grey-girl,
... lightheadedness.


Nine are there heavens
named on high.
I know the lowest,
that is Vindbláinn (wind-dark),
that is Heiðþyrnir (the welkin)
and Hregg-Mímir (storm-Mímir),
the second is called
Andlangr (extended) Heaven,
that you may understand,
the third Víðbláinn (wide-dark),
Víðfeðmi (wide-embracer) I say
to be the fourth,
Hrjóðr (coverer) and Hlýrni (twilighted)
I believe the sixth,
Gimir (fiery or jeweled), Vetmímir (winter-Mímir),
I guess now there are
eight heavens
Skattyrnir (rich-wetter) stands
above the clouds,
it is outside
all the worlds.

The Sun

Sól and sun,
shine, fair disk,
lightning, cover, plaything,40
healing light, disk,41
lightning, doubt-disk
and light-bringer,
driving, elf-glory
and Dvalin’s plaything.

40 – Or reading hrjóðrleika following Cleasby-Vigfusson: heavenly plaything. Hrjóðr appears in the preceding verse as one of the heavens.

41 – Röðull can also be translated “glory,” here and in the compounds in lines 5 and 7

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