Now I will expound on heiti for ships:
ash, Sessrúmnir (roomy-seated),16
racing warship, cutter, ship
17 – Freyr’s ship.
18 – The ship that brings the Sons of Múspell at Ragnarök.
78. Freighter, merchant ship, bow-cold and reindeer, ridgeback, thole-strap-fixed hoary-prow, cruiser, boat and pinnace, brig, Hringhorni (ringhorn), 19 craft, keel, longship, Leifnir,20 galley.
19 – Baldr’s ship.
20 – A sea-king’s name – see verse 4.
79. Ring, Gnóð, Freki (greedy), fast, Móðrói (mind-stillness), thole-strapped, beaked and deep-beater, owl, lighter and ash-wittol, skiff, long-boat, cat-boat, conveyance and canoe. 21
21 – Also means a leather sheath, so presumably a skin canoe.
80. Knarr, cog, knuckleboat, coble, dug-out, dragonship, Elliði (high-poop), warship and scow, fir, steed, galiot, ferry, punt, swiftflyer, flyer and delight, frequent-traveler and host-carrier.
81. Sail, planks, mast, hold-fast, helm, clenching, seaming, clinching and sheet-rope, stay, stem, steerage ropes, studdle and buntline, pennant and black-strakes, bench, stern and cable.
82. Bow-rails, shrouds, reefing-rope and sheets, spikes, mast-tree, seam, poop-supports, leek, mast-head, line, ears, vane, vane’s tail and plug.
83. Mast-knob, halyard-hole and tiller, hull, bow, fifth plank and hawse-stem, buntlines, hawse, pulleys and stays, tholes, heel, hammer, help-rope and leech-line.
84. Yard, sailyard ring, reef, rib and thole-straps, windlass, poop, wand, rowlocks, winch, tacking-boom, bulwark, prow and poop brands, transoms, bow-line, bulkheads.
85. Prow, knee, boarding, belt and bows, keel-board, mast-wedge and garboard, bollards, carling, clews and thwarts, rigging, gunwhales, cleats and deck-planks.
86. Guys, halyards, siphon, oars, sail-braces, clinch-plates, bridge and pins, sand-strake, keel-heel and anchor, anchor-buoy, bailer and crow's nest.
87. Earth, landscape, glebe, marl and Hlöðyn, humus, Sif, Fjörgyn, ground, fundament and orb, field, garden and Fife, homeplace, country and coast, land, soil, march, locale and marsh.
88. Holt, ridge and fell, mountainside and hill, knoll, heath and combe, hillock and slope, crust, dale and wold, vale and peninsula, mold, underturf, hog's-back, moor, hollow and sand.
89. Now I shall tell the terms for oxen: Árvak (early-waking), bellower and Jörmunrekr, neat, Freyr, Reginn, smith, island-driller, red and driven and dark-sided, fighter, gorer, Vingnir, steerer.
90. Himinhrjóðr (heaven-reaver), cattle and hard-farer, Hæfir (hooved), stout one, roarer, stot, beeve, short-horn and color, Hliðr (storm),22 draft-ox, Arfr (inheritance), Jörmuni23 and mighty smith.
22 – Hliðr also occurs in verse 96 for a hart.
23 – usually referenced as Jörmunr; also a name of Óðinn.
91. Spark, Apli (dapple), gold-horn, riches, young bullock, old bull and Arfuni (heir), bull, stormer, yeller, noise and membered, stud-bull, steer, taurus, mud-given.
92. A cow is called heifer, she-calf and coquette24 and Auðhumbla, she is the first of cows.
24 – skirja means “cow” but also “romping lass”; frenja in compounds means “hoyden”; clearly a different way of looking at cows from what we are used to.
93. Ram, exceeding-horned one, horn-squealer, Gumarr,25 glowing-horn and payment-wretch, teg, white-horn, Hallinskíði,26 simple one, horn-wretch and Heimdali, bleater, middling, he-sheep,27 marten28 and wether.
25 – Uncertain meaning – gumar = men.
26 – Also a name of Heimdallr; see also Heimdali below.
27 – blær also means “air” or “breeze” and appears among the terms for a sword.
28 – Mörðr is generally held to be put here in error, since Iceland does not have martens.
94. A goat is called Grímnir29 and Geirölnir, Tanngnjóstr,30 chopper and Tanngrisnir, billygoat and he-goat, buck, Grímr31 [is] mentioned. It's also called Heiðrún, nanny-goat and kidling, coalmouth and kid are the same.
29 – “Hooded” or “Shadowed” – a name of Óðinn.
30 – Tanngnjóstr and Tanngrisnir (Toothgnasher and Toothgrinder) are Thor’s goats.
31 – “Cowled”- also a name of Óðinn.
95. Bear, bruin, mighty one, she-bear, elk-opponent blue-molar, icewolf and broad-farer, haltered, teddy,32 growler, leopard,33 rough, greedy, robber, Jórekr, Mösni, forest-traveler, cub, snarler, Vetrliði (winter-survivor), greedy-tooth, noisy-ass,34 hooded one, shriveled-gut.
32 – Bossi looks to be a diminutive, so I have used the modern one.
33 – Hlébarðr “used indiscriminately of a bear, wolf, etc.” Cleasby-Vigfusson. See also verses 57, 98.
34 – Going by the two parts of the word in Cleasby-Vigfusson, this should be noisy-twat. Jálfaðr, father of din, i.e. battle, is a name of Óðinn.
96. Hart, Dyraþrór, Hliðr (storm), Eikþyrnir, Duneyrr, Dáinn, Dvalarr, moor-treader.
97. Hog, slaughter-shiner, suckling and Hrímnir, swine-tarr, boar, Sæhrímnir, barrow-hog, pig,35 slaughter-bear, ridge, dirt-treader, thriver, warrior, piggy, barrow, Vaningi.36
35 – Taking rái as ráði.
36 – A name of Freyr – Vaning, Vanir-child.
98. Varg, wolf, Geri, watcher, grey-beast, Hati,37 Hróðvitnir and heathdweller, Freki and forest-dweller, Fenrir, leopard,38 Goth,39 worthy, noisemaker, howler, fighter, dusky and dreadful and swarthy-cheeked.
37 – The wolf that runs before the sun; the name means Shunner.
38 – hlébarðr; see also verses 57 and 95.
39 – Goti is listed in the Lexicon Poeticum as a term for a horse.
99. And [she] is called thus: she-wolf, she-varg, barker and grey-girl, ... lightheadedness.
100. Nine are there heavens named on high. I know the lowest, that is Vindbláinn (wind-dark), that is Heiðþyrnir (the welkin) and Hregg-Mímir (storm-Mímir), the second is called Andlangr (extended) Heaven, that you may understand, the third Víðbláinn (wide-dark), Víðfeðmi (wide-embracer) I say to be the fourth, Hrjóðr (coverer) and Hlýrni (twilighted) I believe the sixth, Gimir (fiery or jeweled), Vetmímir (winter-Mímir), I guess now there are eight heavens recounted, Skattyrnir (rich-wetter) stands above the clouds, it is outside all the worlds.
101. Sól and sun, shine, fair disk, lightning, cover, plaything,40 healing light, disk,41 lightning, doubt-disk and light-bringer, driving, elf-glory and Dvalin’s plaything.
40 – Or reading hrjóðrleika following Cleasby-Vigfusson: heavenly plaything. Hrjóðr appears in the preceding verse as one of the heavens.
41 – Röðull can also be translated “glory,” here and in the compounds in lines 5 and 7
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