Viðauki I: Nafnaþulur

The Sea

Sea, ever-lying,
salt, Ægir (ocean), waters,
wetness, briny, calm waters,
dead calm and wave,
resounding, high sea, main,
murmurer, rocker and mere,
sucking, pounding surf, same,
whirlpool, stream and fjord.
Sound, inlet, fair faring,
far-sounding and wide expanse,
tempest, home of fishes, breaker,
dusky, flood and surf,
swell, dazzler,
Gymir (engulfer) and flower,
rumbling and restless,
surge, pool, snatcher.
Crashing, wake, league,
fishing ground, tidal bay and fishing bank,
water, deep and plunge,
bay, tarn and ditch,
tumult, canal, trout-hole,
stream, rivulet and beck,
channel, well, wellspring,
eddy, torrent and firth.
Hefring10 (heaving), roller,
whitecap and shoals,
Hrönn (casting-up wave), Rán (plunderer), Kölga (cold one)
and Himinglæva (heaven-gleam),
Dröfn (comber), Uðr (wave) and sweller,
Dúfa (deep), Bylgja (billow),
shoal-breaker and wind-wave,
Blóðughadda (bloody-haired).

10 – Rán is also a goddess’ name; Hefring, Hrönn (also in verse 59), Kólga, Himinglæva, Dröfn, Uðr, Dúfa, Bylgja, and Blóðughadda are also the names of her and Ægir’s (or the giant Hlér’s) 9 daughters.


Gjöll* (noisy), Glit (glitter), Gera (greedy),
Glóð (glowing) and Valskjálf (carrion shelf)
Ván (hope), Víð* (wide), Vimur,
Ving (meadow?) and Ouse,
Síð (low), South, Freka (demanding),
Sækin (pushy), Einstika (lone-progressing)
Elbe, Rye, Oykill,
Ekin (driven), Rennandi (running).
Tyne*,11 Rhine and Nith,
Thuil, Rimr (rime?), Ysja (bustler),
Don, Ógn (water), Dýna (bog),
Dyn (thunderer), Höllfara (slopping course),
Órun and Brora,
Auðskjálg (easily crossed), Ludd,
Mun (delight), Merkriða (remarkably shaking),
Mein, Saxon Elbe.

11 – One of the rivers that come out of the Elivögur. Also 10 others, all indicated by asterisks. Gunnþró is likely Gunnthrá and Iðsvöl is likely Svöl.

Tiber, Durn (sluggish), Dvina,
Thames, Vönd (difficult) and Strand,
Marne, Móða (broads), Þrym (noise),
Morn (murrain) and Gotha-Elbe,
Alne, Uðr (wave), Ólga (swell)
and Euphrates,
Ógn (dread), Eiðrennir (isthmus-runner)
and Aberdeen.
Rögn, Hrönn (wave) and Raun (test),
Raum-Elbe, Hnipul (drooper),
Hnöpul, Hjálmunlá (helm-shoal),
Humber, Dvina,
Vil (trouble), Vín (wine), Vella (welling),
Valin (respectable?), Semð, Salin (salty?),
Dneipr, Drammen, Strauma (torrent),
Nissan, Mynt (mouthed), Gnapa (jutting).
Gilling (resounding) and Nile,
Ganges, Tweed,
Luma, Vervaða,
Loire and Gunnþró* (battle trough),
Iðsvöl* (ever-cold),12 Vegsvinn (way-swift)*,
Yn, Þjóðmuna*,13
Fjörm* (hurrying), Strand and Spey,
and Fimbulþul* (great roaring).

12 – Or Víðsvöl, “wide-cold.”

13 – Or Þjóðnuma, “great container.”

Nyt (milk), Hrönn (wave) and Nauð,
Nöt (wet), Slíðr* (punishment) and Hríð* (snow-storm),
Körmt, Leiftr* (lightning) and Armet,
the two Kerlaugs (baths),
Gömul (old), Sylgr* (swallower) and Inn
and Geirvimul (spear-swarming),
Ylgr* (she-wolf), Vöð (ford) and Flóð (flood),
the Jordan comes last.


Salmon and ling
hake, cusk,
sea-trout, milter salmon,
perch and kelt,
lobster, lumpsucker,
milter, halibut,
mackerel, salmon-trout
and gurnard.14

14 – Andvari is also the name of the dwarf who curses the gold.

Silt, pollock, skate,
herring, brown trout and redfish,
codfish and houting,
carp, flounder,
fluke, sturgeon
and sea-scorpion,
mackerel shark, catfish
and Greenland shark.
Sea dragon, miller's thumb
and prawn,
lobster,15 sand-flounder
and gar pike,
sea scorpion, turbot
and rock crab,
sillung-trout, shellfish,
swordfish and pollack.

15 – Following Cleasby-Vigfusson in seeing hamerr as error for humerr.

Codling, coal-fish,
cod, strap-fish,
groundling, pike,
gill-fish, long cod,
eel and carp,
crab, garfish,
dogfish and moonfish,
minnow, sea-urchin.


Buck-whale, pike-whale
and dugong,
dolphin, sea-monster
and porpoises,
ruddy whale, ruddy whale calf,
sperm whale, walrus
and nordcaper.
Greenland whale, cow-whale,
narwhal and pilot whale,
humpback, fin-whale
and jut-whale,
bowhead whale, orca
and sei whale,
horse-whale, bottlenose whale,
minke whale and grampus.