Viðauki I: Nafnaþulur


Now I shall list the Æsir’s names:

There are Yggr and Thor
and Yngvi-Freyr,
Víðarr and Baldr,
Váli and Heimdallr,
there are Týr and Njörðr,
and next I list Bragi,
Höðr, Forseti,
the last here is Loki.


Now shall the goddesses all be named:

Frigg and Freyja,
Fulla and Snotra,
Gerðr and Gefjon,
Gná, Lofn, Skaði,
Jörð and Iðunn,
Ilmr,1 Bil, Njörun.

1 – Ilmr or Hilmr is a word that means “a sweet smell”

Hlín and Nanna,
Hnoss, Rindr and Sjöfn,
Sól and Sága,
Sigyn and Vör.
There is Vár, and Syn
needs to be named,
and Þrúðr and Rán
are enumerated next after them.
Now, Freyja wept
gold for Óðr.
Names of hers are
Hörn and Þrungva,
Sýr, Skjalf and Gefn,
and likewise Mardöll.
Her daughters are
Hnoss and Gersimi.


And these others are Óðin’s maidens:

Hildr and Göndul,
Hlökk, Mist, Skögul,
then are Hrund and Eir,
Hrist, and Skuld listed.
Those who shape need2
are known as norns;
Nift and Dísi
I will now name.

2 – nauð, as in the rune nauðiz. The word is also used in ON for bondage and childbirth.

A Woman

Gentlewoman, bride, lady,
proud lady, spark,
woman, dame, female,
sweet thing, widow,
housewife, wife and sweetheart,
slender lady, matron,
bondswoman, haughty one and war-widow,
maiden and old lady.

A Man

Time it is to tell the terms for men:

poets and husbands,
men and bachelors,
stallions, yeomen,
braves, males,
a company, masters
and landowners.
Heroes, thanes,
stalwarts, gentry,
menfolk and seamen,
soldiers, holders,
fellow travelers, a household,
a band, hardymen,
champions and men of valor,
fighters, mates.
Population and folk
and bosses,
troops and hosts,
the common people and hordes,
the people, dandies,
lions and travelers,
a gentle, a noble,
a great man, a sage.
 There’s the illustrious man
and the gold-giving lord,
and show-offs,
an army and a division
and chieftains,
the nation and the county,
the assembly, the populace.
Now there’s the throng and the crowd,
the village, good people,
the household and servants,
the down-chinned, men of courage,
a crew and a gathering,
a garrison, dandies,
beings and "brians".
And there are further
terms for people,
the bodyguard and mercenaries
and housecarls,
a personal army and a couple,
if I list them all,
confidant and buddy
and counselor.
bench-mate and acquaintance,
fellows and followers,
there are partners
and kinsmen together,
friend, hug-buddy,
the king’s guard, men.
Great-grandfather and relative,
grandfather, son, father,
brother, twin,
bro and sib,
baby, child, nephew
and heir,
there are full-blood brothers
and branches from the tree.
Offspring, clansman,
relation and kid,
gentleman and a lineage,
kinsman, a line,
youth, buddy,
in-law and secret-sharer,
clan, family line,
dependent and swain.
Drinking buddies
and brothers-in-law,
progeny there are
and pillar of the family,
there are council-member
and counsel-giver,
servitors, thralls,
servants, laborers,
workmen, slaves3
and serfs.

3 – Cleasby and Vigfusson vacillate on whether kefsar is cognate with German Kebsmann, “loverboy.”


These are the heiti:

din and tumult,
clangor, spear-slaughter
and spear-wielding,
strife and a clash,
shield-violence and shield-stir,
the rush and the onslaught,
victory, the campaign, a fight.
The fray, murder and slaughter,
an attack, direful enmity and terror
clamor, shock, war,
action and a bout;
there are battle
and fate’s decision,
storm and pugnaciousness,
army-movement, a thunderclap.